Before the invention of electricity and power tools, timberworks and carpentry were utterly dependent upon hand tools. Using a saw or chisel to cut a wood piece would have ended up leaving a rough plus uneven surface.
To smooth the surface and straighten out the edges, hand planes were used. Even today, artisans prefer using hand planes for getting specific and controlled design work. There are different carpentry planes, each providing different cuts and finishing results.
Some may be good for straightening the edges, some may be good for lump removal or smoothing the rough grains. In this article, I will talk about different types of hand planes and their uses.
The List of Different Types of Hand Planes
You can easily remove large chunks of wood from the timber surface and get a smooth and glossy finish. You are thinking about thickness reduction or removing any extra uneven lumps; then a scrub plane would be your best bet.
Though scrub planes have a thick blade and large mouth opening, their base and overall size are relatively small. You can get a 4 to 6 inches radius deep cut with a scrub plane. These kinds of planes are generally used for getting diagonal stroke along with the timber piece. You can use Scrub Planes for shaping and smoothing the extra-wide wood piece.
It’s a large plane with 10 to 16 inches long and 3 to 4-inch wide. It is equipped with a 2inch wide blade. The jack plane’s blade is installed, keeping a slight convex that helps the tool go through various materials effortlessly.
Moreover, you can adjust the blade angle if you need a more satisfactory result. A jack plane can effortlessly provide rapid cuts and remove much more stocks compared to any other plane.
The Jointer Plane
With a jointer plane, you can quickly straighten the verges of wooden planks. The length of a jointer plane is quite long, almost 22 to 24 inches. The reason behind this peculiar name is that this plane will prepare the edges of the wood piece for jointing.
The Smoothing plane has dimensions of 5 to 10 inches long. It is relatively smaller than other bench planes, and you can quickly smooth rough surfaces, remove any unwanted marks, and other minor finishing works.
In addition to that, it gives a very slight cut almost 0.045 mm or less, which is best for smoothing. And for getting the best results, try it on a flat surface.
The Japanese Plane (Kanna)
Instead of pushing the plane, you will have to pull it towards you. Japanese planes are usually made of hardwood, such as oak. A thick blade is attached to the body. There isn’t any screw or knob to adjust the blade. So, you will have to tap it with a hammer gently. The pulling action is less fatiguing and always provides you a precise and clean finish. You can be tension-free as the Japanese plane is famous for preserving the wooden surface and giving efficient results.
It’s a 140 to 150 mm long plane. You can efficiently operate it with one hand. A block plane will give you fine finished cuts, and you can trim the grainy edges of a wooden piece. With a block plane, you can get upwards cut in slope and edges.
A 450 mm long plane is best known for flattening wooden boards. With a fore plane, you can easily shave peaks of a timber plank without ruining the grooves. This plane is generally used for leveling and squaring the rough wood surface before final polishing.
The shoulder plane has a pretty wide blade attached to its body. It almost reaches out the full width of the plane. The benefit of having such a wide blade is the amplified range of cut. With a shoulder plane, you can cut rebates and trim shoulders and edges quite effortlessly and effectively.
You can call it a shoulder plane but with shorter dimensions. It’s mostly used for getting the finished cut or other small-scales more delicate work. The blade on a bullnose plane is also very wide as the shoulder plane; one great thing about bullnose planes is that you can remove the plane’s front, and it will act as a chisel.
With a plow plane, you can cut long grooves in wooden pieces. You will get a set of changeable blades with a plow plane, and each blade will provide specific dimensions and desired grooving results.
With a router plane, you can easily clean out shallow grooves and mortises. You can cut the blade exposed at the front or blade inside the body with a router blade.
You can easily cut around the corners and hard to reach places with this plane.
The Body Part of a Hand Plane
To understand the difference among various planes properly, you must have an overall idea about the body structure of a plane. Let’s start with the mouth. It is located on the plane’s base, which gives an opening for the blade to reach out.
A metallic blade is attached to the body for smoothing the rough surface and lumps. There is a lever that is securing the blade top. There are two knobs on the plane. One of the knobs is for blade depth adjustment, and another knob is for giving an extra grip while working.
Moreover, the blade is screwed and firmly attached to the plane’s body for better stability and providing a uniform cut across the workpiece. A lever is anchored to the base for adjusting the distance in the mouth. A frog holds the blade in place and gives extra stability and efficiency to the mechanism.
After reading the article, I hope you have an in-depth idea of the types of hand planes and their uses.
If you don’t have access to power grinding tools, then using a hand plane will be the only option. It might be a little bit fatiguing and time-consuming, but you can control the strike power and get an elegant finish.